See you in a month (or 2592000000000 microseconds)

It is a paradox: when I work on high-frequency trading I’m always late (as a trader I would never be at the top of the queue for sure). Human beings don’t live in a world where micro, nano and picoseconds matter, and I’m not a white rabbit. I have planned to write here the last episode of Bob Van Valzah’s series Shortwave Trading (about the sites in Europe), and other posts about HFT but I’m currently trying to write this 96-page book one the (quite crazy) history of the microwave networks (both in the US and in Europe – my backyard). Since I’m so late, I decided to disappear for a month (more or less 2592000000000 microseconds) to finish the book.

Les Moëres, September 4, 2014, 13 h 39 mn 46 s. (the only photography included in the book).

Chapter 1 (/4) is done, mostly devoted to the very long history of the Moëres, the area where Jump Trading purchased the old US military tower in Houtem, Belgium, near the Channel, in December 2012. This history is intriguing (it is all about straight lines, liquidity and economics, long before Jump came around). This history led me to add a chapter to the book (which was not planned at the outset).

The Moëres (Moeren in Dutch). On this “map” the Jump tower looks like a cross.

Also, the good news is that Dutch cartographer Joost Grootens agreed to help me to design the map I’ll include in the book as a postcard (if you don’t know Joost’s work, check out this). I have so much respect for his (immense) work that I am very honored he accepted to give a hand up on this project. Now it’s time to finish the book. I’ll be back when it’s done. See you in 2592000000000 microseconds.


Shortwave Trading | Part IV | Sleuthing Examples, Research Tools, Techniques, and Deputy Antenna Sleuth Homework

[Here is Bob Van Valzah’s last episode of the “Shortwave trading” series. Again, I’ll add a Part V about Europe when I’m back in my backyard, on Thursday. Meanwhile, I hope you’ll enjoy this last part from Bob – Alexandre]

After my first few public posts about shortwave trading, I gradually realized that I’d inadvertently created a worldwide network of deputy antenna sleuths. This is the final post in the Shortwave Trading series since the terms of my forthcoming employment agreement will prohibit me from future public talk on the technology of trading. I want to leave behind details on some of the research tools and techniques I’ve used. This is how the sausage is made.

I’ll also leave a list of locations that may be worth watching. Some may be near you. Even if I can’t talk about what’s found in the future, maybe you can? The comments below might be a good place to document new findings until there’s a better place offered.

In addition, following sections will set out the criteria I’ve used to assess the confidence that a shortwave trading site has been found, give example FCC searches, list links to web-based research tools I’ve found useful, give some tips on research techniques, and acknowledge the many people behind the scenes who’ve contributed to this work.

Two quick asides: Video from my shortwave trading presentation at the New York STAC Summit is now available. It’s 31 minutes, including the Q&A at the end. Also, I recorded a podcast episode on shortwave trading. Try these if you’d rather watch or listen than read. Thanks to Peter Lankford at STAC for the video and to Scott Schweitzer at Solarflare for the podcast.VideoFrameGrab2

Plausibility Criteria

If you find something that looks like a shortwave trading site, how confident can you be that you’ve found the real thing and not a landing beacon for body-snatching space aliens? Since a shortwave trading site exists to link a local market to a remote market, I can think of two things that set a minimum bar for plausibility:

  1. Visual evidence of a shortwave antenna with a heading toward a remote market. Previous posts in this series have shown many shortwave antennas you can use as models of what to expect. Examples have included headings around 50º from Chicago which cover Europe.
  2. A path for connectivity to a local market. Visual evidence of this can be a microwave dish pointed in the direction of a local market.

I suppose that the best way to reach certainty that you’ve found a shortwave trading site would be for the owner of the site to publicly admit that it’s theirs, and that they’re using it for shortwave trading. That’s not going to happen, but there are still many scraps of circumstantial evidence that can add up.

  • Government licenses allowing shortwave transmission from the site.
  • Government licenses allowing microwave links between the site and a local market.

The credibility of your conclusions goes up if you can find government records that tie a site back to a trading company. Trading companies generally create shell companies to hold their shortwave trading assets. Look for:

  • Radio license ownership
  • Tower ownership (see FCC ASR database in Links below)
  • Zoning changes
  • Construction permits
  • Property sale records
  • Property tax records

Note that FCC licenses will have contact information. This is often a telecommunications lawyer with an office in Washington DC who prepared the license application, and also created the shell company to hold the license. One lawyer or one law firm may work on behalf of many clients, so consider any correlations circumstantial, but suggestive.

FCC Search Examples

It’s tough to beat government records for adding credibility to your findings. Finding FCC licenses to transmit both shortwave and microwave from the same location is a great goal. There are many ways to search FCC databases, but I’ll give two examples searches for shortwave licenses. Once you have the coordinates where a shortwave license allows transmitting, I’ll show how to do a microwave search around those coordinates.

FCC Shortwave License Search by City

Cell towers are by far the most common thing you’ll see, then maybe AM, FM, and TV transmitting antennas. But let’s assume you get lucky and spot something odd-looking in a city and want to check your hunch. I’ll use the city of West Chicago as an example.

You want to search for all experimental shortwave licenses in West Chicago, so you go to the Experimental Licensing System Generic Search web site. Fill in the shortwave Frequency Range of 3 to 30 and select MHz from the unlabeled suffix drop-down menu. Fill in Transmitter City with West Chicago.

Experimental City Search

Do not fill in the Transmitter State field or you’ll trigger a bug in the FCC website and get an error.


I’ve reported the behavior, been thanked, and told that it’s a known problem.

If your search returns any licenses, see the section below on reading FCC experimental license search results.

FCC Shortwave License Search by Coordinates

My searching began with the question: “What experimental licenses allow shortwave transmitters within 100 miles of CME?” Here are the steps to do that query.

We need to have the coordinates for the center of our 100-mile search radius. I’ve heard that CME doesn’t officially reveal the location of their primary data center, but Google is happy to give you the answer directly in the search results so you don’t even have to click to see it.

CME Datacenter Coordinates Google

Google’s convenient answer brings up an important side point: there are several different geographic coordinate systems in use and it is sometimes necessary to convert between them. The query result above shows results in decimal degrees, but the FCC searches require degrees, minutes, and seconds. Instead of converting, it’s sometimes easier to find my target in Google Earth and then read degrees, minutes, and seconds from the display.

CME Coordinates

Start with the FCC Site / Frequency Query page and set Service Selection to Specific Services Only and check the box for Experimental Database.

Site:Freq Service

Set Frequency section Begin and End fields to 3 MHz and 30 MHz, respectively, to limit the search to shortwave frequencies.

Site:Freq Freq

In the Location Search Method section, click the Point Radius radio button.

Site:Freq Location Search Method

Now enter the coordinates for the center of your search and your search radius:

Site:Freq Point Radius

Hit Submit Query and you should see several rows of output. I’ll just highlight the one for West Chicago. From this, you can get the coordinates needed for a microwave search.

Site:Freq Search Result

You can also click on the Callsign link to query for all licenses for a station. Interpretation of the results is described in the next section.

Reading FCC Experimental License Search Results

The experimental license query results I see for West Chicago look like this:

West Chicago Experimenal Results

As in this case, it’s common to see a list of expired and renewed licenses. It’s also common to see licenses updated long before they expire; these are experimental licenses after all. There may be no difference between the Initial and Current links in the left column, but if changes are made over the lifetime of the license, they’ll show up as a change there.

A granted license will be shown on FCC form 442. See the form by following the Current link in the View Form column. It’s sometimes insightful to compare the changes relative to expired licenses to understand trends.

Note that your browser and the FCC’s web site may conspire to open FCC form 442 in a new tab or new window, leaving the search results still to be seen. Clicking on other form 442 links in the search results may just update the tab or window that was displaying earlier form 442 results, overwriting them.

An interesting part of the form is the Manufacturer section listing the transmitting equipment used. This often includes the transmitter, modem, or SDR, power amplifier, and antenna.

442 Manufacturer

The form ends with a Station Location section, with subsections for each site where the licensee may transmit. The GPS coordinates for latitude and longitude should get you very close to the antenna location. But be aware that the street address and city may be approximate. Some of the sites I’ve visited are far enough out that they may not be part of an incorporated city. The address used on mapping apps seem to go by the city handing postal mail delivery for the area, which might be different from how the FCC sees the address.

442 Location

Applicants sometimes request redaction of the antenna heading (degrees from True North above). But when they do, you just have to visit the site and stand under an imaginary line in the sky pointing in the direction of the shortwave antenna heading. Walk away from the antenna site along this line, pausing every 500 feet or so. Make sure you’re still on the heading line and take a picture of the antenna with your cell phone. Back at home, get the GPS coordinates of the pictures and plot them with GoogleEarth to get the heading line. It only takes a few points to establish a line.

FCC Microwave License Search by Coordinates

Microwave links use well-established technology so there’s no need to experiment. Such licenses are part of the Universal License System (ULS) online database. If we have the station location coordinates from a shortwave experimental license, we can use those to look up associated microwave licenses nearby. I haven’t found an easy way to do geographic ULS searches, so this is a multi-step process. Start by following the Site Based link.

ULS Site Based Link

Microwave licenses of interest will come from the business pool, so select MG from the Site Based section and the Radio Service Code scrolling list.

ULS Select MG

Then make sure you hit the GeoSearch button, not the Search button.

ULS GeoSearch Button

Click the Coordinates radio button and fill in Latitude, Longitude, and Radius. You can use a small radius if you’re confident in the accuracy of the coordinates you have, otherwise you may have to increase it to get a hit. Click the Search button.

ULS Coordinates

The search results I see look like this:

ULS Microwave Search Result

This shows two microwave licenses, one for the microwave transmitter near CME and the other for the microwave transmitter at West Chicago. Click on either license to bring up the main page.

ULS Microwave Main Tab

Now click on the Map tab to see the location of the other end of the link:

ULS Microwave Map Tab.png

Note that sometimes microwave searches find no license when it sure seems like they should. I know one reason is that sometimes higher frequencies are used instead (“millimeter wave”). The FCC doesn’t require point-to-point licenses at these frequencies. However, the rules as I understand them still require that point-to-point links be registered in a frequency coordination database (see Micronet database in Links below). Check there before giving up.

But even with that, I still see links in the air that I can’t find in a database anywhere, so I think I’m still missing something. I’d love to hear about it in the comments below if any readers know how to do a more thorough search.

Links to Research Tools

  • FCC Experimental License Site or Location Search: All the confirmed shortwave trading sites I found were in this database. Use this link to search for licenses with transmitter sites within a radius of GPS coordinates.
  • FCC Experimental License Generic Search: Same data as the link above, but just the search criteria that aren’t location focused. There is some overlap in criteria allowed with the above link.
  • FCC Universal License Search: Non-experimental licenses, including those used for microwave links.
  • FCC Antenna Structure Registration (ASR) Search: Search the database of towers and other places you’d ever want to put an antenna. See FCCInfo below.
  • FCC FRN Search: Every business or individual that interacts with the FCC must have an FCC Registration Number (FRN). Licenses and antenna site ownership are tied back to FRN. Companies desiring secrecy will create shell companies to register with the FCC.
  • FCC Application Search: Applications are sent to the FCC to request a license. There may be interesting nuggets of history or things that don’t make it into the issued license. One example is an application to transfer control of a license from one company to another.
  • Micronet Millimeter Link Database Query: May be able to find links that don’t appear in FCC ULS searches.
  • Google Earth Pro: Indispensable. The mobile versions may be ok for quick checks in the field, but I found I really needed the power of the desktop version. I looked for a way to share placemarks between desktops or between desktop and mobile, but no success. So I ended up having to do all my research on one desktop, but see next bullet.
  • Google Earth Web: Some of my challenges with Google Earth might’ve been eased if my browser of choice was Chrome or Firefox. Being willing to sign into Google everywhere probably would’ve helped sharing too.
  • Google Maps: Great for planning driving and biking routes to visit antenna sites.
  • Google Street View: I didn’t know “Pegman” had a name until I read the linked support document.
  • Apple Maps: Uses a different database than Google. It sometimes helps to have a second opinion. Aerial imagery freshness is sometimes better than Google, sometimes worse. Don’t forget to try satellite mode and “3D.”
  • FCCInfo on Google Earth: This is an amazing little tool that you download once and install into Google Earth on your desktop. It’s focused on AM, FM, and TV stations, but there’s no need to check these boxes unless you want to know where your local broadcast stations have their antennas. In the Places panel, click FCCInfo. When that expands, click ASR Towers. This will display red vertical lines reflecting all registered ASR towers. Towers over 200 feet must be registered, as must those close to an airport runway. This includes many of the towers I found to be used for shortwave trading and microwave links.
  • GeoHack: A nice abstraction layer for mapping, satellite imagery, and more. Enter GPS coordinates and get a page of links to various web-based services for maps and imagery of the site. For example, here’s the page for the West Chicago Tower location. Note the lack of western-hemisphere bias: longitude defaults to east.
  • Compare Licenses: You can sometimes draw interesting conclusions by comparing how experimental licenses change over time. This is a tedious process if done manually, but there are many web sites that will take two URLs for two different experimental licenses from the FCC database and highlight just the differences.
  • Emission Designator Reference: Experimental licenses will give “emission designators” that compactly describe how information is encoded for transmission (i.e. how the radio carrier is modulated). This link explains the compact encoding used by the FCC.

Research Techniques

  • Do Field Work Respectfully: Please be respectful of nature and the property and wishes of others. Avoid trespassing [I confirm, that’s important: once I entered a private tower/property and the big HFT that owns the tower called the FBI – true story, Alexandre].
  • Bookmarks: These posts contain well over 100 links that I curated from probably more than 1,000 web pages reviewed in pulling this material together. I had to set aside my old bad habits of piling up browser windows, each with countless tabs. Given many simultaneous lines of investigation and countless tangents, the old way just didn’t scale. Find a way to organize bookmarks and sync them across devices. Maybe Pinboard if you don’t like the services provided by your browser?
  • Screenshots: Find a convenient way of taking screenshots and annotating them. I use the key combination Command-Control-Shift-4 on my Mac to begin selecting an interesting screenshot area. I paste that into Preview and annotate it there. I think 10.14 has something even better in the offing.
  • Who Owns That Antenna? I want to avoid angering potential employers who’ve gone to a lot of effort to obscure ownership of their shortwave trading assets, so I haven’t talked much about ownership. Yet reporters have combed through public records and figured it out in some cases. They don’t tell you how they did it, but Matt Hurd has shown how he connected the dots on his excellent Meanderful blog.
  • Latest Imagery: Watch out for the Google Earth checkbox in the lower-left hand corner under Layers for 3D Buildings. It does make the buildings look better in some places, but it can have the side effect of hiding more recent imagery that doesn’t have the 3D info. I recommend running without 3D Buildings checked.

Deputy Antenna Sleuth Homework

If you’re intrigued by shortwave trading, I can think of a few things you may be able to do to help us all learn more. Please add to the comments below if you see anything interesting.

  • Observe Changes Near You: If you live near one of the known shortwave trading sites, please keep an eye on the antennas as you drive by.
  • Repeat FCC Geographic Searches: Every few months, it’s probably a good idea to repeat searches around trading market data centers and transoceanic cable landing stations. As I’ve shown in Part III, things were still rapidly changing as of mid 2018.
  • Watch Alpine, New Jersey: I mentioned in Part III that an unusual kind of shortwave broadcast license had been granted for an antenna site in Alpine, New Jersey. Construction had been approved for nearly a year with no activity when I checked it. A drone would be a good way to check the site. The local police knew I was looking around because I left my car parked where it could be seen from the main road.

    The Alpine towers seen by Google Earth, 3D option on

  • Watch Anchorage, Alaska: An experimental license has been approved for transmitting from Anchorage, Alaska. The same license covers transmitting from Aurora, Illinois and Secaucus, New Jersey. The Anchorage antenna site would be very near the shortest path between CME and Tokyo. The shortwave antenna heading would be pointing at Tokyo. That’s a pretty good pile of circumstantial evidence that shortwave trading is planned for the site. I couldn’t find pictures of anything that had been built there when I looked around with Google Street View.
  • Watch Orangeburg, New York: The license for one of the sites built near CME also allow transmission from an antenna site not far from Mahwah, just over the border into New York. This is likely where they’ll build if they expand to the east coast.
  • Watch Seattle, Washington: The license for another site built near CME also allows transmission from an antenna site not far from the landing station for the PC-1 cable connecting to Japan. But note that license contains a typo on the longitude for the antenna site–it should be 122 degrees west, not 112 degrees west.
  • Watch Wesley Hills, New York: The license covering Seattle also allows transmission from an antenna site in Wesley Hills, New York. This is the one with the camouflaged cell tower that I mentioned in Part III. This is my bet for where they’ll expand on the east coast.
  • Watch Glendale Heights, Illinois: This antenna site is right on the shortest path between CME and Europe. It could have a latency advantage when transmitting, compared to the more rural sites chosen to minimize receiving noise. The existing tower had two cellular carriers and no shortwave when I visited on April 11, 2018.


Primary thanks go to Alexandre Laumonier (a.k.a. Sniper In Mahwah) who’s pioneering work on the HFT In My Backyard series of posts inspired me to undertake this work.

My public posts about shortwave trading brought out not only deputy antenna sleuths, but also advisors who can’t talk publicly. Thanks to all the insight they provided on the QT.

Thanks to all who’ve commented on previous posts. Please comment here if you find anything interesting or develop any other research techniques.

One of the shortwave sites visited by French sound artists working on a project about the “sounds” of high-frequency trading. © Jean-Philippe Renoult & Dinah

Shortwave Trading | Part III | Fourth Chicago Site, East Coast, Patent, Regulation, and Farmer Kevin Mystery


[Here is Part III of Bob Van Valzah’s series “Shortwave trading”. No real comments from me on this one as I’m on vacation. I’ll cover the HF sites in Europe once Bob’s gardening leave ends. Happy reading, and thanks Bob for this new episode. Alexandre.]

I’ve heard that years ago, there was a stable business selling microwave data radios to local governments for networking their offices. Then the traders discovered microwave and everything changed for the radio vendors. Their new customers weren’t so much concerned about the cost—they just wanted the lowest-possible latency in the radios and repeaters.

I’m picking up signs that vendors in other industry segments are now seeing a surge in their business with the recent interest in shortwave trading. For example, TCI has had a good business making shortwave antennas for 50 years. Then they issued a press release in April 2018 saying they’re now working with “non-government customers to provide HF antenna communication systems that minimize timing-latency.”

Bloomberg has picked up the story of shortwave trading, digging through public records to disclose ownership of a site I described in a previous post. It seems like this is a hot topic!

In this post, I’ll show some recent site changes, document a fourth CME/Europe shortwave trading site I’ve discovered, detail discoveries from my trip up the east coast, discuss regulatory questions, cover two patents on shortwave trading, some miscellaneous things, and finally explain the connection between a sax-playing sheep farmer and shortwave trading. This is a long post and these are varied topics, so please just skip to the next section if you’re not engaged.

A Rapidly Changing Field

After stumbling on the original West Chicago Shortwave Trading site, I found other sites by looking in an FCC database of experimental licenses. More on these licenses below, but as you can guess from the name, holders of such licenses can be expected to be doing some experimenting. I’m sure there are many technical and business experiments happening that we can’t see, but antenna changes are hard to hide. Consider what’s happened at the West Chicago tower site in the four months since I discovered it.


Evolution of antennas on the West Chicago tower over four months.

I never set out to document the changes over time, so my camera angles above aren’t identical, but I’ve still tried to make a fair juxtaposition with cropping and zooming. The changes have replaced fairly broadband shortwave antennas with more narrow band antennas and strengthened the mounting system holding the antennas to the tower. The boom length on the new antennas is nearly double that of the previous antennas, giving them more gain. It looks to me like they’ve decided on a narrower band of frequencies and want more oomph, which can be turned into better reliability or more throughput. Shortwave trading appears to be a rapidly changing field.

I have a hunch that the trading companies are not entering the field without tapping the experience of others. While visiting the West Chicago site in April, I noticed a building permit posted on the perimeter fence.


Building permit on fence around West Chicago tower site.

The contractor doing the work is listed as “Long Wave,” which could be Long Wave Strategic Communications. They appear to be experienced in building shortwave sites for global governments. They had no comment when I asked if they knew anything about a tower in West Chicago.

A Fourth Chicago/Europe Antenna Site

The FCC experimental license database shows a new license granted on June 6 for a site in Maple Park, Illinois, less than 16 miles from CME’s data center in Aurora. Google Earth showed several buildings surrounded by corn fields on all sides. I could see fuzzy shapes that could be a shortwave antenna on a tower attached to an old farm silo, so I was intrigued.


Intriguing aerial image from a site with an FCC experimental shortwave license.

I Googled the address and learned that this site was the home of TowerWorks, Inc. who are “Communication Tower Specialists.” Now looking back at the image above, I could understand the gray and black area above the silo. At first I though it was shadows on cylindrical bails of hay covered with tarps. But in the context of a tower company, I can guess those are monopole tower sections. Use a crane to stack two or three of those atop each other and you have a great place to put an antenna!

A bit more Googling turned up an interesting filing with the local zoning board from June 17, 2017. The handwritten application seeks special use of the land to store tower sections, add a tower for a customer, and “man toys.”

I visited the site and found the pattern I’ve come to expect. A couple of massive shortwave antennas pointed at Europe and a microwave dish pointed at CME. As with West Chicago, I think I see a narrowband, high-gain antenna, as well as a more broadband, lower-gain antenna.


The fourth site I’ve found linking CME to Europe.

There was a time in the past when all trading between Chicago and New York was done over fiber. But in modern times, competitive trading companies seem to use their own microwave networks or those of McKay Brothers. Seeing this transition has made me wonder what the future holds for shortwave trading. Will it be a crazy experiment by only the top-few trading firms, or will it become effectively “table stakes” for any serious participant in ocean-crossing trades? Having found a fourth CME/Europe site with ownership independent from the previous three, I’m thinking it’s the latter.

One significant difference with shortwave is that there’s not enough bandwidth to share at a single site. Since a single microwave link can offer hundreds of megabits of bandwidth, McKay can offer a “private bandwidth” service where fractions of the total link bandwidth are for sale. Even if that business model is unlikely to work for shortwave, the market data distribution model of Quincy Data (a McKay subsidiary) might work. More on this below.

East Coast Reconnaissance and Speaking Trip

A single FCC experimental license can cover transmitting from several locations. So my initial searches for shortwave licenses within 100 miles of CME’s Aurora data center also turned up transmit locations along the east coast and even in Alaska. I used Google Street View to look around the licensed area in Alaska, but didn’t find any antennas there.

Still, there were many antenna sites along the east coast and I had agreed to speak on shortwave trading at the STAC Summit in New York. I’ve always wanted to see the museums in Washington DC, so my gardening leave seemed like a natural time to rent a car and visit antenna sites on the east coast. I can’t imagine how many wrong turns I would’ve made in eight hours of driving through unfamiliar territory without GPS directions.


Planning a trip to visit east coast sites with experimental licenses.

In the same way that Chicagoans and New Yorkers each have their preferred style of pizza, I’m beginning to think they also have their preferred style of shortwave trading. I didn’t really expect to find anything active at the Baltimore and Washington DC sites since their licenses had expired long ago. However, one of those expired licenses from 2011 covers a Chicago-area antenna that’s still flying so I thought it was worth looking for the other end of the link, but couldn’t find it.

One generality that emerged from the trip is “build out Chicago first.” Several of the licenses covering sites I found operating in Chicago also allowed for east coast transmit sites, but I didn’t find any one company operating in both Chicago and on the east coast, even when they had licenses to do so.

A signal arriving from across an ocean is several billion times weaker than one arriving from across town, so electrical noise is a big consideration in deciding where to place a receiving antenna. People like to surround themselves with electrically noisy machines (e.g. cars, computers, shavers, etc.), so I wasn’t too surprised to find no antennas near densely populated areas like Secaucus, New Jersey.


A well-camouflaged cell tower.

I had a lot more hope for an antenna site in more sparsely populated Wesley Hills, New York which is just across the state line from Mahwah, New Jersey. I didn’t find anything there except a well-camouflaged cell tower in the middle of the woods, but this site is on the same license as the West Chicago tower, so I felt I had to visit.

Alpine, New Jersey Antenna Site

All the sites visited so far have been on FCC experimental licenses, but I received a tip about an east coast shortwave broadcast license that could be related to trading. The heyday of shortwave broadcasting is sadly long past, but this new station was approved for construction in August 2017.

Unlike shortwave stations from the days of yore, this license uses a new form of digital transmission called Digital Radio Mondiale (roughly translated as worldwide digital radio). The format supports a variety of different voice/music digital encoding schemes, allowing for tradeoffs in the radio bandwidth used, the reproduction quality, and the reach of the signal. But most relevant to traders is the fact that data and voice can be sent at the same time (“data casting”). Think of how modern car radios seem to know the song and the artist for every song played.

The application for this license says the applicant’s principal business is “broadcast and data services,” which would be a good description for a shortwave version of the Quincy Data business model mentioned above.

A little looking through LinkedIn shows that the applicant shares an address on Lexington Ave. with a company involved with securities. A director of the company is listed as being an Independent ForEx Trader. The application says the antenna will have a heading of 52º and achieve good coverage of Europe.

The antenna site is in Alpine, New Jersey. There’s a nice aerial photo of the site in the application:


Aerial photo from application to build a shortwave broadcast station in Alpine, NJ.

Even though the licensed antennas would be on the smaller “radar tower” highlighted in the application photo, it’s worth noting the much larger red and white tower to the left. It’s often called Armstrong Tower after the FM radio pioneer Edwin Armstrong who built it in 1938. His work gave us the FM broadcasting standards still in use worldwide today.

But back to the application for a shortwave antenna on the radar tower. I managed to get this photo of the radar tower before the Alpine Police chased me away:


The Alpine, NJ radar tower–with no shortwave antenna to be seen.

After checking my rental car and out-of-state driver’s license, the officer accepted the story that I was looking for the Armstrong Museum. It was on the same site, but apparently closed years ago. The officer politely explained that they’re rather vigilant around the site because it was used as the backup transmission site for the NY/NJ metro area after the World Trade Center antennas and transmitters were lost in the 9/11 attacks. It’s across the Hudson and only 6 miles away from the northern end of Manhattan.

But getting back to shortwave trading, the key point here is that no shortwave antennas had been built as planned when I visited in early June, 2018, even though the FCC had allowed construction to start 10 months prior.

Riverhead, New York Antenna Site

There’s an experimental shortwave license for a site way out on Long Island at Riverhead, NY that looked very promising. Before heading to an antenna site with my own cameras, I always see what I can from aerial imagery first.

Riverhead Size Reference

The antenna site at Riverhead, NY is surrounded by dense forest.

The above image covers an area about 1/2-mile on each side. The largest antenna sites I’ve previously surveyed have covered a few acres. The drone pilot I hired to survey the site measured it at 26 acres. It’s huge. Here’s the drone’s-eye view.


The drone’s-eye view of the antenna site at Riverhead, NY.

Most of the antennas used here are made with comparatively thin wire strung between steel towers, rather than with rigid aluminum tubing that’s easier to see from the sky. So it mostly looks like somebody cut a huge hole in the woods so they could stand up about 20 red and white towers until you take a closer look.

Riverhead Small LP

A log-periodic wire antenna suspended between three towers.

Above is one of the smaller wire antennas at Riverhead and the zoom lens makes the size hard to judge. The two closest towers are about 90 feet apart, while the one behind the trees with the red “T” bar at the top is 125 feet back from them. The diagonal lines in the foreground are guy wires for towers outside the frame.

In previous surveys, I’d never come across a pyramid antenna like this before.

Riverhead Pyramid

An omnidirectional, pyramidal, log-periodic antenna.

It has a central tower and four sides, each of which is logarithmically flared toward the base. This site is practically an antenna zoo. It seems to have one of everything.

Research into the history and ownership of the site suggests that it wasn’t recently built for shortwave trading like the other sites I’ve documented. Historical imagery shows most of the towers have been there since at least 1994.

The site was built by ARINC many decades ago. You have to use the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine to even find their history. Briefly, they were appointed by the FCC to provide communication to aircraft while they’re flying outside the range of their usual VHF radios. This is called “over-the-horizon” communication because it’s required beyond the line-of-sight limits of VHF. If you’ve ever flown back from Europe and wondered how the pilot knew the weather at JFK, now you know. Actually, today’s transoceanic pilots also have access to satellite communication, but I’ve read that their bosses still like them to use shortwave because it costs less.

In 2013, ARINC was bought by Rockwell Collins, who have a line of business making shortwave radios for airplane cockpits. They in turn agreed to be acquired by United Technologies. The FCC experimental license database shows that Rockwell Collins also has a license at this site, which I presume is for testing products like their shortwave modem.

Radio Central

Radio Central at Rocky Point, NY. The worlds largest radio transmitter at the time.

If you dig back into the history of the area, you find that radio figures prominently. During the 1920’s, RCA built Radio Central, the largest radio transmitter in the world, just 17 miles away at Rocky Point, NY. Riverhead was the complimentary receiving site. The leader of this radio work was David Sarnoff who oversaw RCA and NBC. He also worked with Edwin Armstrong mentioned above in the history of the Alpine, NJ tower. In 1978, RCA sold 2,000 acres of land at Riverhead and 5,000 acres at Rocky Point to the state for $1. The Riverhead land is now the David A. Sarnoff Pine Barrens Preserve, coming right up to the fence around the antenna site I surveyed.

Getting back to modern-day Riverhead, I used the drone imagery to work out the outlines of the shortwave antennas there.

Riverhead Outlines

Outlines of shortwave antennas. Red have been in place decades. Bluish appear in 2016.

Unsurprisingly, the red antenna outlines point along the common flight paths over oceans. Google Earth has a sort of Wayback Machine for aerial images so you can see changes over time. Not much changes from 1994 until May 2016, when the antennas I highlighted with bluish outlines first show up. One of the bluish squares is the pyramidal log-periodic antenna shown above. The smaller bluish shape is a very interesting rigid log-periodic antenna similar to those seen at other shortwave trading sites.

Riverhead LP Beam

A directional, log-periodic antenna, made from a truss and rigid aluminum tubing.

We know these new antennas are transmitting because their license gives the station call sign as WI2XER and their signal was received by a shortwave listener. Experimental stations often request an exemption from the usual requirement that stations identify themselves with their callsign regularly. WI2XER did not request the exemption, so they regularly pause their high-tech data transmission experiments and identify with old-fashioned Morse Code.

WI2XER as received by a shortwave listener.

Careful observers will note the microwave dish on the tower. I couldn’t find FCC records for it, but by eye, I can tell you that it’s pointing in the direction of Secaucus. To be fair, that’s also the direction of LaGuardia Airport and Central Park, so I have no certainty in the microwave destination.

Riverhead Cabin

Riverhead, NY receiving cabin as seen in The Book of Radio, Charles William Taussig, 1922.

So there’s a century-long history of shortwave radio around Riverhead. Antennas there have communicated with aircraft in recent decades. Only the last two years show any signs of new activity that seems to match the pattern seen in use by shortwave traders elsewhere. But if traders are now working there, it’s not the first time. A book on radio published in 1922 describes a small cottage in the woods at Riverhead where one “would never suspect that one fifth of the trade of the United States with Europe is practically conducted.” Nearly a century ago, prices sent by Morse code from Europe were received at Riverhead and then sent over land lines to 64 Broad St. in Manhattan, driving international trade.

Regulatory Questions

Many have asked how shortwave trading stations would be regulated by the FCC. I’m no expert in this area, so I sought the perspective of Bennett Z. Kobb before I left Washington DC. He’s a veteran watcher of the wireless industry and curator of @experimradio, an excellent Twitter feed highlighting interesting FCC experimental licenses. I’ve boiled my understanding of our conversation down to a few paragraphs for others who want some regulatory insight into shortwave trading.

If your business wants to set up a microwave link between two offices, the FCC has a category of licenses just for you. If you want to be an AM, FM, or TV broadcaster, there’s obviously a category of licenses for that. There are even licenses for shortwave broadcasting to the general public. But what if your business wants to set up a private shortwave link between international offices? Sorry, there’s no permanent license category for that. Nobody ever wanted such a license until recently.

FCC experimental licenses seem to be the category of choice today. These allow experimental operation for a few years and may be renewed. Historically, experimental licenses shared some constraints of amateur licenses, specifically the old rules contained prohibition of commercial use and encryption. However, the rationale behind new rules issued in 2013 says they were “modernized,” specifically to “keep pace with the speed of modern technological change.”

The rationale for rule change also mentions that it’s often proprietary business interests that drive technological change. Hence an applicant can ask the FCC not to publicly disclose proprietary parts of their application. (Example redacted application.) The proprietary information could describe novel technologies, questions to be answered by the experiment, and future business plans. But even if the FCC agrees not to disclose proprietary information from the application, the granted license will still reveal the transmitter location, frequencies used, other basic technical data, and contact information.

It’s clear to any FCC observer that rules do change over time. My best guess is that shortwave traders running unsuccessful experiments will just let their licenses expire. But those achieving success will renew, while petitioning the FCC for a rule change that would create a new license category allowing permanent operation. But note that the ocean-crossing properties of shortwave also make it subject to regulation by more than just the FCC. Clearly, there are mechanisms for this, but the international wrinkle will probably delay such permanent rule changes compared to domestic-only changes.

From my own perspective, I’ve now observed at least four different companies placing large bets on the future success of shortwave trading. They’re not skirting regulations and hoping that the regulators don’t notice. They’ve requested, and received, FCC licenses for their operation. Even though they’re limited-term licenses today, I can infer from the size of the bets that the traders see a path to continued legal operation.

Shortwave Trading Patents

Interesting things started to happen after I began talking about shortwave trading in public. I’ve received tips that often begin “Hey Bob, have you seen this?”

One tipster mentioned a US patent for trading over long distances with low latency using shortwave. It contains key ideas like using Software Defined Radio (SDR) to give computers control over radio parameters. It was published in June 2016, with a priority date of December 12, 2014.Patent Figure 2

Another tip I received pointed to a US patent covering shortwave trading with multiple paths. It was granted in September 2015, with a priority date of December 11, 2014. That’s literally the day before the priority date on the above-mentioned patent. The patent links to three prior posts on this blog [the now famous “HFT in my backyard” series – Alexandre] as non-patent citations. [Seems the people behind this patent is/are a Twitter follower of SniperInMahwah – Alexandre.] Patent Figure 1

I’m no IP attorney, but I read the patent as describing a communication system with multiple paths that may differ in bandwidth and latency. It describes “command data” such as an order to buy or sell and also “triggering data” that causes the command to run, perhaps with simple parameters that can be delivered with the trigger.

It gives the example of a trading system using both fiber and shortwave communication. The code and the orders can be sent over the fiber, with shortwave carrying only the trigger of when to sell, perhaps with small parameters.

Shortwave Radiogram

CME Leroy Neiman

An expressionist painting of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange trading floor pits by LeRoy Neiman, fittingly recently used as a test image by Shortwave Radiogram.

Shortwave broadcasting has been common since the 1920’s, but modern alternatives like the Internet have caused some to call it a legacy technology who’s glory days are behind it. Name calling doesn’t stop innovators like Dr. Kim Andrew Elliott from inventing things like Shortwave Radiogram. It’s a radio program of digital text and images sent by powerful shortwave stations on weekends when they’re not busy with their usual voice transmissions. Reception reports come in from all over the world.

This is relevant to shortwave trading because it’s an existence proof for sending data via shortwave. Take a quick look at YouTube reception reports from Israel, Germany, or Ontario to get a feel for the speeds and sounds of data and images going over shortwave.

Radiogram Screenshot

Screen capture from YouTube video showing Shortwave Radiogram being received in Israel.

The program for June 22-25 carried the text of a story on shortwave trading written by the ARRL, the national association for amateur radio. Watching the text scroll by as it’s received in the reception report videos linked above will give you a feel for shortwave data rates. Digital transmitters can probably achieve better data rates than shown, but this is probably the right order of magnitude for your thinking.

Farmer Kevin Mystery

I know I shouldn’t be impressed by how deeply connected the world is these days, but who could expect the connection between tweets from a sax-playing sheep farmer and shortwave trading? Let me explain.

Farmer Kevin Harrison plays tenor sax and tends his sheep in fields in Bath, England. He tweets as @FarmerKev100 and on June 17, 2018, he posted a picture of a mysterious device that showed up in one of his fields, asking what it was.

Farmer Mystery Object

A mysterious device with a solar panel appeared in Farmer Kevin’s field.

It was chained to a tree in his field so he went to get a hacksaw to cut the chain. By the time he got back, “two dudes were taking it away.

Farmer Dudes

“Two dudes” taking away the mysterious device.

Reddit has a subreddit called “WhatIsThisThing” with 600,000 subscribers where people post photos and videos of unknown things, asking for help in identifying them. Farmer Kevin now has about 600 twitter followers. Somehow Reddit user Pontifff saw Kevin’s photo and asked the subreddit for help with identification the same day Kevin posted the picture. Farmer Kevin was astonished four days later that his tweet was seen over 71,000 times.

The mysterious device was covered in camouflage tape and had a solar panel. Many on Reddit liked the suggestion that it looked like a “solar-powered beer fridge for hunters.” There were also some pretty hilarious comments on the Twitter thread linked above.

The only reason I know about these events is because I happened to be looking at the sources of traffic to my previous blog posts about shortwave trading when I saw 3,000 clicks coming in from the subreddit. I found that Reddit users linotype and spiregrain had commented on the mysterious device and suggested that it might be connected to shortwave trading, linking to my previous posts.

Their suspicions were raised because the device had wires going up into the trees that appeared to be ad hoc antennas.

Now imagine that you’re an aspiring shortwave trader. Some antenna sites are better than others, so how do you decide among them? Your goal is to receive a faint signal coming from across an ocean, so you want to choose a receiving location away from noise sources. You might build a portable broadband shortwave receiver device that logged noise readings to an SD Card for later analysis. Adding a solar panel would remove the need to change batteries. You might take your device to each proposed receiving site, chain it down, hope nobody notices, and collect a few weeks of data on the local noise levels so that you had data for comparing the receive sites.

Now throw in the fact that this site in Bath is on the side of a hill gently sloping toward the US and I like the explanation that somebody was assessing the site for use as a shortwave trading receive station. Reddit and Twitter came to the most reasonable conclusion in my book within a day and had great fun along the way.

Next Up

I hope to complete one more post here before my gardening leave ends and I go back to work on July 17th. I know there are still many discoveries to be made and insights to be gained, but my forthcoming employment agreement won’t allow me to talk about them publicly.

I plan to list some of the tools and techniques I’ve used in my investigations. I’ll also give pointers to some potentially interesting sites and hope that others can continue the investigation.

Meanwhile, the owner of this blog is working on the nature of exchanges (with the help of local French wines).